Education in schools

Part of our charitable aims is to promote the history and cultural background of football within education. Here are some projects we have run within local schools.

Forge Valley Community School

Forge Valley Community School have researched two organisations, Sheffield and Hallamshire FA and Football Unites Racism Divides.

They did some research on Arthur Wharton:

He was born in Jamestown, Accra, Ghana in 1865. At a young age he quickly developed an ability to run fast over short distances. In 1882 he moved to England to study but soon got distracted by his love of sport. Between 1886 and 1888 Wharton was the fastest man in the world, setting the first world record over 100 yards in 1886 and then retaining his title in 1887. In 1888 Wharton moved to Sheffield to become a professional runner.

However, due to his obvious talent, Wharton was handicapped in races, meaning other competitors were given a head start on him to make races more competitive.

In 1894 Wharton was asked to sign for Sheffield United of Division One. United’s manager at the time had also been Wharton’s running manager and so knew the goalkeeper well. Unfortunately for Wharton, in the same season Sheffield United signed a 19 year old goalkeeper called William ‘Fatty’ Foulke. Foulke was able to keep Wharton out of the starting eleven for most of the season, limiting Wharton to just three appearances, only one of these was a league match (Sunderland, away). By playing at Roker Park in 1895, Wharton became the first black professional footballer to play in the English top flight. United went on to lose the game 2-0 with Wharton at fault for one of the goals. Despite his achievement, Wharton continued to experience racism. He was known as ‘Darkie Wharton’ because of the colour of his skin.

And also the Rules of Football, Then and Now:

The Sheffield Rules of 1858

1. The kick off from the middle must be a place kick.
2. Kick out must not be more than 25 yards [23 m] out of goal.
3. A fair catch is a catch from any player provided the ball has not touched the ground or has not been thrown from touch and is entitled to a free-kick.
4. Charging is fair in case of a place kick (with the exception of a kick off as soon as a player offers to kick) but he may always draw back unless he has actually touched the ball with his foot.
5. Pushing with the hands is allowed but no hacking or tripping up is fair under any circumstances whatever.
6. No player may be held or pulled over.
7. It is not lawful to take the ball off the ground (except in touch) for any purpose whatever.
8. The ball may be pushed or hit with the hand, but holding the ball except in the case of a free kick is altogether disallowed.
9. A goal must be kicked but not from touch nor by a free kick from a catch.
10. A ball in touch is dead, consequently the side that touches it down must bring it to the edge of the touch and throw it straight out from touch.
11. Each player must provide himself with a red and dark blue flannel cap, one colour to be worn by each side

Rules of Football Now (as of June 2012)

There are 17 laws in total, some of which are briefly summarised below.

Field of Play. The game can be played on either natural or artificial surfaces, the surface must be green and rectangular in shape. The two long sides of the rectangle are called touch lines and the two shorter sides are called goal lines. The field is divided in half by the halfway line.
Ball. Must be spherical, made of leather (or similar) 68-70 cm in circumference and of a certain pressure.
Number of Players. Two teams of no more than 11 players (one of which is the goalkeeper). A game cannot start if either team has less than 7 players.
Equipment. Players must wear a jersey, shorts, socks, shin pads and boots.
Referee. The referee ensures the Laws of the Game are respected and upheld.
Duration of the Match. The game is played in 2 halves consisting of 45 minutes each.
Start and Restart of Play. A kick-off starts play at the start of the match or after a goal. A kick-off involves one player kicking the ball, from stationary, forward from the centre spot. All players must be in their own half prior to kick-off. After half time the teams switch direction and the other team will kick-off. After a goal is scored, the team which conceded the goal will kick-off to restart play.
Ball in and Out of Play. The ball is out of play once a goal has been scored or when the referee has stopped the game. The ball is in play at all other times.
Method of Scoring. The ball crosses the goal line inside the goal mouth.
Fouls/Misconduct. These are many and varied, broadly speaking it is an offence to use excessive force whilst playing the game either deliberately or undeliberately or to handle the ball (unless you are a goal keeper). The referee may show the yellow card to caution players for less serious offences and the red card for more serious offences resulting in the player being sent off. Two yellow cards are equivalent to one red card.
Free Kicks. Are given by the referee for fouls and misconduct. A free kick can either be direct or indirect. A goal can be scored directly from a direct free kick. A goal can only be scored from an indirect free kick if it touches at least one other player first. The free kick must be taken from a stationary position with that position varying depending on whether the free kick was given inside or outside the goal area and whether it’s direct or indirect. The opposing team must be a minimum of 9.15 m from the ball when the free kick is taken.
Penalty Kicks. Are given against a team when they commit an offence which would normally be awarded a direct free kick inside their goal area. The ball is kicked from stationary from the penalty spot. The opposing team must be outside of the penalty area and at least 9.15 m from the ball.
Throw-in. Used to restart play after the whole of the ball has crossed the touch line.
Goal kick. Used to restart play after a goal has been scored.
Corner Kick. Is given when the whole of the ball crosses the goal line and was last touched by a member of the defending team (and no goal was scored). A corner kick is taken from inside the corner arc closest to the point where the ball crosses the goal line. The defending team must be at least 9.15 m from the ball when the corner kick is taken.

A History of Sheffield and Hallamshire FA:

• The Sheffield and Hallamshire Football Association (originally called the Sheffield Football Association) was formed in Sheffield in 1867
• Its teams adopted the Sheffield Rules of football up until 1878 when they were merged with the Football Association’s rules
• Its members include some of the oldest football clubs in the world, such as Sheffield and Hallam
• In 1867 an organisation was needed to run the Youdan Cup, the world’s first football tournament. Twelve teams took part in the tournament, with Hallam being the eventual winners. A second cup, the Cromwell Cup, was played the next year. This cup was only available to teams that he been running for less than two years, it was won by The Wednesday.
A History of Hallamshire FC:
• Was originally called the Sheffield Football association. They formed in 1867. They used Sheffield football rules up until 1878. they then merged with the football association rules. The members include some of the worlds oldest football players
• By the early 1860’s there was over 15 teams. Most teams used the Sheffield football rules.
• In 1867 they decide they needed a association to organise the first ever tournament – Youdan.
• Twelve teams took part in the tournament.
• In 1871 there was a first inter- association. It was against someone from the London association.

Handsworth Grange School

Handsworth Grange School have compiled this photo-diary based on their research into Hallam FC and Sheffield Wednesday FC:

Westfield Sports College

Sheffield FC presentation by the Year 8 Football Team

On Tuesday 19th March we visited Sheffield FC and met with Richard Timms who gave us an excellent talk on the history of Sheffield FC. We had our meeting with him in the board room that is jam packed with footballing history.

As part of the Home of football project the Year 8 Football team at Westfield Sports College visited Sheffield FC and we were amazed to find out that Sheffield FC are the ‘grandfather of all clubs’ …….They started it all !!!!

Here are some pictures from our visit!

Thanks for reading our presentation and we hope you are proud of Sheffield’s place in football history. Harry Bembridge; Joe Simpson; Adam Pocock; Callum Turner; Oliver Greaves; Alfie Gleadall; Joe Fisher; Lewis Hallowes; Ben Jinkinson; Ross Booth; Ben Longden; Alfie Manthorpe

The Rules of Playing Football and the Development of Pitch Marking: A Timeline by Westfield Sports College

– Up until the 19th century, football was played by dozens of players on each side attempting to get the ball in a goal such as a large tree, a pub door or a gateway.
– There was no pitch or rules and play was very rough
– Early in the 19th century, health and bodily fitness was important and there was a demand at British boys’ colleges to provide a winter sport after the summer cricket and athletics season.
– Each college decided to play a more refined form of football with defined rules, set number of players and a specific playing area .The pitch was a rectangular area of cut grass often as big as 200 x 100 yards, with goals represented by pairs of posts at each end.
– Each college had its own version of how the game should be played and as a result the “rules” varied from college to college.
– By the 1850’s the first generation of footballing college boys had returned to their home towns and some were keen to continue playing. So came about the formation of the first football clubs.
– Early club games were just between that club’s own members and to give some variation could for example be “married versus singles” or “first half alphabet surnames versus second half surnames”.
– Club football was like that at college, played as opposing packs trying to dribble the ball towards an opponent’s goal in order to kick the ball through. The contests were still quite rough and any appealed for infringement of the club’s rules of play were decided by the 2 captains.
– Sheffield F C was formed in 1857 soon followed in 1860 by Hallam F C and these remain the world’s two oldest football clubs.

A description of early rough football comes from the memoirs of W C Clegg of Sheffield of an incident in a match against Hallam: “Down one side of the field ran a stone wall only a foot or so off the touch line. I was running down the wing with the ball and after me came a great big fellow, twice my weight. I knew he was up to some mischief and suddenly he launched himself at me with all his weight. I swerved quickly to one side and he went smack against the wall with such force that he knocked several stones out of position! ”

– During the 1860s Football Associations were formed first in London then Sheffield and Glasgow but agreed rules did not develop until 1877

– The basic rules of playing football generally applied i.e., Kick off from the centre of the pitch, goal counted if ball kicked between posts, no handling of the ball and an attempt to define the tackling of an opponent deemed fair or foul.
The 1870s saw the various Associations agree new rules covering:
– Two handed throw ins from the “touch line”
– The “off side rule“ was accepted by all
– This period saw the introduction of pitch markings. This was done either dry with powdered lime or more economically the lime was mixed with water the resulting slurry being painted onto the grass.
– The pitch perimeter lines were marked together with a line across the middle of the pitch to aid the positioning of kick offs and restarts. Also short lines 6 yards in front of each goal helped the positioning of goal kicks

Season 1890/1891 saw another batch of rule improvements:

– Referees and 2 linesmen
– Direct and Indirect free kicks
– Penalty kicks
1891 Goal nets were first used
1903 The “advantage rule” was introduced.
1904 Players knickerbockers must cover the knees following reports of much shorter versions.
1909 Goalkeepers had to wear a coloured jersey for better identification.
1912 Goalkeepers were now restricted to handling within their penalty area .
1913 Opponents of free kicks must stand at least 10 yards from the ball. The referee would “pace out” 10 yards from the ball placement. A 10 yards radius centre circle and 10 yards radius “Ds” were added to each penalty box

Here are some logos designed by pupils at Westfield Sports College:

All Saints Catholic High School

All Saints Catholic High School is the originator and fund holder for the Home of Football project.

Grace Boyden, a pupil at All Saints, has researched the history of Bramall Lane:

‘Bramall lane hosted its first football match on the 29th December 1862, between Sheffield F.C and Hallam F.C. The game was played to raise money for the Lancashire Distress Fund and ended 0-0. As Sheffield’s main stadium Bramall lane hosted the most important local matches. Bramall Lane became Wednesday’s permanent home between 1880 and the opening of their new stadium at Olive Grove in 1887. The first inter-association match, between the London FA  and Sheffield FA, was also held at Bramall Lane on 2nd  December 1871. It was won 3–1 by the home side, who also arranged a number of games with other Associations including regular fixtures against Glasgow. On 22 March 1889, it was decided to create a home football team to play at Bramall Lane. It was named Sheffield United after the cricket team. Bramall Lane was regularly used for international matches before the construction of a national stadium in London. The world’s first ever floodlit football match took place at Bramall Lane on 14 October 1878 in front of an attendance of 20,000.’

Some of the students at All Saints have designed logos for the project. You can see them by viewing the Logo Competition page.

Translate »